While discussing the action-reaction law, we briefly mentioned two important concepts. For every action there will be many reactions. And that these reactions will spread everywhere creating a global space time (GST) effect. Actually these two concepts are interrelated. We want to elaborate them to show that the second law of thermodynamics is really a sigma law.
Everything in this nature is interconnected, in global space, and over global time. This means that any action we take now will affect our entire environment. The reactions will spread to many places and will continue to spread over time to affect more and more elements in the environment. The environmental pollution is clearly an example of such an effect. Earth quake, Tsunami, Financial Crisis, etc. are all very well known examples of GST. Thus the GST concept says that for every action there are always multiple reactions. This is a fact of nature; there is no isolated system or environment. However, the sum of all these reactions must be equal to the original action as in (4.4). By considering isolated systems we may make things simpler, but we hide the real nature of things, and possibly create confusions about the reality.
Another view point of the multiple reactions theory is to recognize that you cannot produce a single reaction from a single action as in (4.3). This is impossible, also because we are all interconnected by GST, which prevents single reaction. You cannot create an isolated system; it goes against the laws of nature. The idea of isolation takes us away from the GST perspective. This is also known as simultaneity law that we have investigated in chapter one.
The GST concept also says that the same action cannot produce the same result, because the first action has already impacted the environment. Second time the environment is different. Therefore the second action is not exactly the first action; the second action cannot produce similar chain of reactions, because it is working on a different environment and at different time. Both time and space has changed after the first action, the GST is different now for the second action. This essentially means that no process is reversible. The environment has changed. It was square before, and now it is a circle. The reverse action is not meaningful anymore inside this circle.
Thus two of the most important assumptions of thermodynamics – isolated system and reversible process – are against the GST concept. They are against the concept that everything is working simultaneously, interactively, and at same time. And we all agree that if the assumptions are invalid then the theory will not work in engineering.
In many cases, we may not need to analyze all the reactions. We may need to study only one of the reactions, or some of the reactions, but not all of the reactions. But we must remember that all the reactions exist, we cannot ignore them. With this background in mind let us see the statement of the second law of thermodynamics.
The Second Law of Theromodynamics
The laws of thermodynamics are usually defined using heat and work [Serway, p.670] and in the context of an engine. The second law says
It is impossible to construct a heat engine that produces no effect other than the input of energy by heat from a reservoir and the performance of an equal amount of work.
That is, all the heat taken cannot be converted into work.
Heat Input = Work Desired (impossible)
Some heat will be always lost. The heat input is the action, which produces two reactions, some work and some heat loss. If you analyze the two reactions carefully you will find that they both include many reactions. The work produced has, loss of work due to friction in the gear boxes, loss of work in all mechanical joints etc. Similarly the loss of heat also has many reactions, some heat was lost straight into the environment, some heat was lost in the engine body, some was lost in heat transmission pipes etc. Thus the original action, taking heat, has produced many reactions of many work types and many heat loss types and can be written as in (4.13).
There are other reactions also like producing some sound or noise. If we sum all the reactions we will always find that it will be equal to input heat amount. Thus the second law is really the sigma law. Now the second law says we cannot prevent the losses in heat. We say that we cannot prevent the losses in the work also. That is we cannot channel all the input heat directly into usable work output. We call that as trying to isolate a system from its global space time (GST) environment. That is not possible; it is against the reality of GST.
Thus taking heat and then producing some work and some heat loss, is equivalent to saying that heat input has produced two reactions. That is, the sum of the two reactions must be equal to the heat input, which is the sigma law. If you consider one of the outputs say the work, and the input, it is clear you cannot get 100% efficiency, because it will violate the sigma law. You cannot produce only one reaction or in other words you cannot have an isolated system. The two requirements – isolated system and 100% efficiency – are equivalent, and violate the concept of GST.
Associated with the second law of thermodynamics is the concept of entropy. The entropy theory says [Serway, p.683],
Isolated systems tend toward disorder and that entropy is a measure of this disorder.
Again, in the above statement the assumption of isolated system is not feasible. The GST theory says we are all globally connected and constantly interacting with each other. We have mentioned before, if the assumptions are wrong, then the results will be wrong also.
The concept of disorder has not been defined in thermodynamics. Random motion of molecules or atoms in an isolated environment is given as an example of disorder. This motion surely can be modeled using differential equations and then we will find it as a very well defined motion. The fact that we cannot write such a set of differential equations, because of its complexity; and the fact that we have taken a statistical approach because of its simplicity; do not mean that the atomic motion is an example of disorder. If we expand the microscopic space and if we expand the nanosecond time scale then we will find perfect order in the motion. We illustrate with one example.
We have observed from our backyard looking up at the sky that airplanes often fly along a perfect straight line at very high altitude. We see that there is a perfect order in this motion. However, the pilot sees the cockpit meters almost steady with little vibration in the needle tips; which we may interpret as a little disorder. This needle display comes from a space time filter of the navigation computer data. The computer is running at nanosecond time scale, but the data is taken for display maybe every tenth of a second, thus it uses a time scale filter. Similarly the data also is a 32-bit number inside the computer, but the computer averages it over space scale, thus filtering data according to the space range of the cockpit meter. These space time filters thus remove almost all appearances of internal disorder inside the computer.
There are many registers inside this navigation microprocessor of the digital electronic circuit board. If you plot the values of any one of these registers, over time, you will find that the graph will look like a random process, and may appear like a completely disordered system. Many such graphs have been published in literature [Nylund]. This happens because the register is changing at nanosecond time scale. But we know that the microprocessor is doing a meaningful work, because we have programmed it, that is, there is an order inside. Thus the appearance of order and disorder are related to space and time scales. In reality there is no disorder in nature. Note that the microprocessor is part of nature too; it is created using the elements of the periodic table of chemistry.
It is difficult to believe in the concept of disorder under the frame work of GST. We are inside a global system, as discussed later in this chapter, defined by millions of simultaneous differential equations in millions of variables. According to this theory the universe is precisely defined and precisely predictable. That is to say, predictability cannot indicate disorder. We do not have any example in the universe that shows that the nature is creating disorder.
Death for example, is not a disorder; it is a law of nature and precisely predictable. Everything in nature goes through a birth process, maturity process, and death process. Recognize that, they all have different space time scales, which may create an illusion of disorder. Thus the second law of thermodynamics is nothing but the sigma law. The heat loss, work loss, and work done are just three reactions.