10A: Cause and Effect


created everything in the universe, so our souls can also create same things, if we learn how to meditate. In this chapter we learn about soul directly from Veda, that is, from nature.

This chapter briefly covers the philosophy of Samkhya. It brings out the features of Samkhya that helped to create the contents of this book, or in other words, it describes the relevant parts of Samkhya. The entire Samkhya Karika [SK] has about 70 two-line verses and we will probably discuss about 30 of them.

Meaning of the word Samkhya is not known for sure. Many people say it will be numbers, based on the idea that Samkhya talks about many kinds of numbers, like three Gunas, five input sensors, eight forms of success, twenty eight disabilities, etc. As a result some use the spelling Sankhya, which means numbers.

But this meaning does not adequately capture the profoundness of truth that the philosophy or the principles the subject reveals; it truly shows that there is no knowledge greater than this. Samkhya Karika represents revelations that can only be captured by a yogi with the highest level of third eye vision.  It appears that the Sanskrit spelling should be शङ्ख्य, which should indicate conch shell sound, that is, Dibya bani, (Bengali: শঙ্খ ধ্বনি ), which is considered as divine message. Krishna uses conch shell to deliver his messages, and to guide Arjun in the battle field. Vishnu also holds conch shell in one of his hands; and it represents an attribute of Vishnu. Gita used the word sankhye in verse [G.2.39] to mean analytical study.

Vedas cannot be explained by anybody to anybody. Whatever is written and is available is the final document. Only yogis who acquire the divine vision can explain Vedas. All other explanations are like that of the blind men in the elephant story discussed in chapter one. Veda is about nature, we are created by nature, and the creation cannot understand the creator. Only yogic power can allow us to understand Vedas or observe Vedas. Vedas are not manmade.

Samkhya is credited to Kapila muni. Without the knowledge of Samkhya, Vedas (including Ramayan, Mahabharat, and Gita) cannot be understood properly. Samkhya gives the foundation of the theory that explains yogic power and other laws of nature. Samkhya is the most ancient of all philosophical thoughts. Its ideas have been mentioned in Rig Veda [SK, p.3]. In [Gita, 10:26] Krishna has been defined as – “… among perfected beings I am the sage Kapila”. Mahabharat says [Roy, Vol. 10, p.8] –“There is no knowledge that is equal to this (Sankhyas). Do not yield to any kind of doubt. The knowledge which is described in the system of the Sankhyas is regarded as the highest.” Swami [Vivekananda], a famous Indian philosopher of modern time, says the following – “This wonderful man, the most ancient of philosophers, is mentioned even in the shruti – O lord, thou who produced the sage Kapila in the Beginning”.

Happiness is the goal of every living person. But to achieve happiness one must know the truth. Samkhya describes that truth. The prescription is that practice complete isolation of soul from prakrti or nature. If you can achieve that using yogic means then you will be happy. This shows again that Yoga is the foundation to achieve happiness. Of course yoga gives many other benefits that can do miracles to individuals and to societies at large. Thus Veda, which includes Samkhya, is a very practical theory.

3.  Cause and Effect Law

Samkhya Karika [SK] describes many laws of nature. In this subsection we will briefly mention the law of conservation and the cause and effect law. The SK also talks about the law of reincarnation, but we will discuss that in another subsection. In a previous chapter we have seen that in physics there is basically only one law, that is the sigma law, or the law of conservation. In SK also we see only one law, the cause and effect law, which as SK says, depends on the law of conservation. In fact there is only one verse that states both the laws.

Consider the Figures 10.1 and 10.2. Figure-10.1 is taken from the website [Billiard]. In real life we see a man behind a force. Notice the difference with modern physics, the action reaction law of Newton in Figure-10.2.

make the root material an active material. We will discuss them in another subsection.

Active: the manifested objects are active. It creates a body and then gives up or dies. It is active because it will create another body. Manifested objects are effects of causes. Since the causes and effects are similar the root material cause or the root material is also active.

Inert: At equilibrium the root material is inert. It cannot produce any product. When a soul joins the root material, then the Rajas guna becomes mobile and active and makes the other two gunas modify their characteristics to help make different types of products

Root Cause – Soul

Along the same line we see in our world everything is created by chain of action and reaction or cause and effect. This is the efficient cause analysis problem and not the material cause. Here again we can keep on asking what is the cause of this effect, but at some point we will have to stop, because we cannot ask this question for infinite times. As mentioned before, every object has a finite length cause and effect chain, because of finite life time. The efficient cause where we stop asking this question is called the root efficient cause. Everything else is caused by this root cause. In SK this root cause is called Purusha in Sanskrit. The synonyms are soul, knower, cognizer, spirit etc. Again this finite deductive logic proves the existence of soul.

Just like the environment of earth is filled with oxygen and nitrogen molecules, similarly the entire universe is filled with these root materials and root causes or souls. Just like all oxygen molecules are different but same so are the root materials and souls. The word efficient is used to mean that you must use correct or efficient materials to make a product. Similarly you must also bring the correct expertise to create the product. Anybody cannot make everything.

The root cause has some similarities with the root material, but they are quite different also. The most important similarity is that soul is unmanifested. It is plural, but equal, and spans the entire universe. Another important property is that it is conscious. It is eternal; it remains in every object but without any change, i.e. it is constant. According to SK, the soul is inactive, contrary to what normally we would have expected. It is the root material that is active.

The Law

With the above ideas of material and efficient causes we can now try to understand the cause and effect law of Samkhya;

[SK, 9]
The effect is ever existent, because (1) what is non-existent can by no means be brought into existence; (2) because effects take adequate material cause; (3) because all effects are not producible from all causes; (4) because an efficient cause can produce only that for which it is efficient; and finality, (5) because the effect is of same essence as the cause.

The conservation law part says – effect is ever existent; non-existent cannot be brought into existence. This is very similar to what we have in modern physics.

The cause and effect part can be described the following way. Consider the example of making a pot out of clay. Here we need a man and a wheel, then place the mud or clay on the wheel, turn the wheel, use his special skills to convert the clay to a pot. Here SK.9 explicitly states that two types of causes are necessary: material cause and efficient cause to create a product. You cannot make a pot out of any material, you must select appropriate materials – this is the material cause. Also not any procedure will make the pot. You must use a skilled person and his tools to make the pot – this is the efficient cause. Both are included in all modern engineering procedures, but not so in physics.

The law says that every material effect is inside the material cause. The material effect is pot and the material cause is the clay. To distinguish the two items we gave them two names, clay and pot. In the same way to distinguish the two material shapes, for general cases, we called them cause and effect. The experiment only changed the shape of the material, from clay to pot. We have discussed this as part of law of conservation in a previous chapter.

Without the efficient cause, which is the work performed by humans, the efficient effect, the pot, cannot be produced. The human work done, transformed the clay into the pot. The shape of the pot now hides the work done. This is so because the law says cause and effect are similar. The physical work got transformed into two sequential stages, efficient cause and then efficient effect.

This description of the law leads to the search for root material cause and root efficient cause. Like in physics, cause and effect are two same words. In a chain of cause and effect, anyone can be called cause and other one the effect. However, there will be two end points, starting point will be the root cause, and the end point will be the final effect.

This is true for both material causes and efficient causes. Efficient cause is a work or activity and is produced by humans only; the efficient cause only changes the shape of material or gives a motion to the material object.

Interesting thing to remember is that there are two types of causes:

  • Material and efficient.
  • Also, the effect (pot) is already there in the material cause (clay). It only changed the shape.

4. Existence of Soul


This is about the existence of the unmanifested root material cause, only it has three attributes. The root efficient cause is described later.

The unmanifest cause exists because of (1) the finite nature of special objects; (2) homogeneity; (3) evolution being due to the efficiency of the cause; (4) the differentiation between cause and effect; (5) the non-differentiation or merging of the whole world of effects; (6) its operation through the three attributes by combination and modification, like water, through differences arising from diverse nature of the several receptacles of the attributes.

Finiteness: We see that in nature everything is finite. We have discussed this before as the finiteness law of nature. A potter makes only a finite number of pots out of a finite amount of clay. The number of potters is also finite. The verse then implies that if the there were no unmanifest material cause, then we would have found infinite number of products. The finiteness would happen because of the desire of the soul, finite life time of objects, and finite size of the objects. All manifested objects are non-eternal.

In our world we have two objects which are infinite – the real numbers and the money. Both are infinite, you can print as much money as you want, it is abundant and free at its source, the central bank. So are the real numbers. On our computers we can create infinite amount of real numbers and artificial money. The verse this way proves that mathematics and economics are false because it does not have an unmanifested cause. In fact both of them do not have any material cause.

Homogeneity: We see that all objects in nature are homogeneous in character. They all have three attributes – Sattava, Rajas, and Tamas gunas. That means there is a common cause for all of them. This is the root material cause.

Efficiency: The evolution of different objects in the world is because of the different efficient cause of the soul. A potter makes only pot and not cloth. Since different effect indicates different efficient cause, these causes must exist in the unmanifest.

Differentiation: The cause and effect are different. In the case of pot, it has a different shape than the clay. But the clay is the cause of the pot. Thus pot remains as unmanifested effect inside clay. In the same way clay remains unmanifested in another cause. Sequentially we will arrive at the unmaniseted root material cause. This root material cause is causeless.

Merging: At dissolution the pot becomes clay. In the same way all objects merge with the root material.

Combination and modification: Every product is made by modifying the three attributes – Savatta, Rajas, and Tamas. It is like making a color on a TV screen by using three basic colors RGB, Red, Green, and Blue. The root material remains in equilibrium with the three gunas. But all objects are made by combining objects with varying proportions of the attributes. Just like water, when it rains all drops are same, but on ground, where it gets stored, based on the characteristics of the storage place water acquires different tastes.


Samkhya Karika says two kinds of objects exist in nature. They are manifested and unmanifested objects. The soul is unmanifested. Its characteristics are described by the following verse:

[SK, 10]
The manifested is producible, non-eternal, non-pervasive, active, multiform, dependant, serving as a mark (of inference), aggregate of parts and subordinate. The unmanifest is the reverse of this.

All manifested objects are products; they are caused by some material and efficient causes. They are non-eternal; so they are destructible. They are not all pervading like the root material and the soul. For manifest is a product; a product cannot span the entire universe, like the root material, which is unmanifested.

It is active: because it migrates at the time of creation; it incarnates; it grows and dies. They are multiform: each product is different from the other. They are dependent: because they are supported by their respective causes. They are marks: because they are different from the root materials; they are objects. They are subordinate: because one is created by the other in a sequence of material and efficient causes. They are collection of parts.

The unmanifest is reverse of the manifest; it is eternal, all pervasive, inactive, without cause, independent etc. The unmanifests are root material and the root cause, which is the soul. These are thus only two types of unmanifested objects; all others are manifested.

The Soul

There is a need for soul. All the objects are created for the soul and by the soul for it to enjoy them and eventually use them to liberate itself from the pain of life.

[SK, 17]
The spirit exists because (a) the aggregate is for another’s sake; (b) of the absence of three gunas and other properties; (c) there must be some controller; (d) there must be some experiencer; and (e) of the tendency of activities towards final beatitude.

Aggregate: The manifested objects are made for somebody’s requirements. For example a bed, bed frame, mattress etc are designed for a man to sleep. Similarly all aggregates are made for the enjoyment of the soul or the spirit.

It can be argued that nature or the manifested is not for the soul, but for another aggregate. In that case every aggregate will be for the purpose for another aggregate. This process can be continued for infinity, making the logic meaningless. Thus aggregate must be for the soul. The soul cannot be an aggregate and must be unmanifest.

Gunas: Then we know from verse [SK, 11] that the three gunas are not for the soul, they are only for the manifests. Spirit is not composite. All composites have three gunas.

Controller: There must be some controller. Pleasure, pain, and delusion that humans experience must be controlled. For that we need the soul. Since these characteristics of pleasure etc. come from the matter, the entire manifest must have controller, and the spirit is that controller.

Experiencer: The soul is inactive and but conscious. Only soul does not have three gunas and so only it can experience the manifests. Only it can enjoy the pleasure and pain. Intelligence or I-principle cannot enjoy because they also have the characteristics of pleasure and pain because these characteristics are made of the three gunas.

Beatitude: The final beatitude is characterized by complete cessation of pleasure and pain from all the manifested objects. This cannot be for intelligence or great principle etc. because they are composed of pleasure and pain. It can only be for that object which does not have these gunas; and therefore soul must exist.

Observe that controller is the soul that created the object. Experiencer is also the soul. It enjoys its creation and the creations of all the other souls. Thus there is no other creator than the individual soul. There is no creator for the universe. Every object in the universe is created by their respective souls. The universe is enjoyed by all the souls. The universe does not have a soul, this is so, because it will create infinite number of objects, and infinite life time, which we do not see and will become logically meaningless.

There are many souls and not one soul. That is stated in the following verse with the observations:

[SK, 18]
The multiplicity of the Sprit is verily established (1) from the individual allotment of birth, death, and the instruments, (2) from non-simultaneity of activities, and (3) from the diverse modifications due to the three gunas.

There exists a notion that there is only one soul that controls all living being, the above verse explains the infeasibility of that concept. If the soul were one and dwelling in all bodies, then if one dies everyone else would die also, if one becomes blind all would be blind, which would cause lot of confusions.

So it may be possible that this notion is not a result of divine vision. It will contradict Samkhya. Vedas, which are laws of nature, cannot contradict itself. There is a Gita verse, which we will discuss in another chapter, which says a soul cannot be broken into pieces. Thus one soul cannot be part of a bigger or greater soul.

Soul Commands

We can see from the way the body and its organs are created, and the sequence of their creation that they do not have any kind of intelligence. Intelligence itself is created first by the interaction of the soul and the root material. Thus the body or brain cannot have any freewill. We are not our body, we are our souls.

[SK, 12]
The attributes are of the nature of pleasure, pain, and delusion; they serve the purpose of illumination, action, and restraint and they are mutually dominating and supporting, productive and cooperative.

Savatta gives pleasure, Rajas gives pain, and Tamas creates delusion. Savatta is illuminating, Rajas has action oriented characteristics, and Tamas creates restraints.

Rajas makes the root material active type; whereas root cause, the soul, is inactive. Rajas motivates the Sattava and Tamas to become active. Inherently Sattava and Tamas are inactive. Rajas is exciting because it is mobile. It is the rajas guna that keeps the other two continuously active. However if Tamas is very strong then it can restrain the power of Rajas. The root material is always in equilibrium condition with these three gunas. The activity of gunas starts only at the time of creation or when in interface with the soul.

These three properties are mutually dominating. That is, when one becomes active for some purpose, the other two remain suppressed. For example Sattava attains its calm nature only by dominating over Rajas and Tamas. They are mutually supporting also, for example Savtta gives illumination to Rajas and Tamas.

These properties thus have contradictory behavior but they also have a single objective to emancipate the soul.


10B: Theory of Creation

Internal organs are located inside the subtle body. They are: Intelligence, I-principle, and Mind. They act in all three times: past, present, and future. They have the ability to analyze things that happened in the past, and that may happen in the future. The external organs work only at present time. External organs are sense organs and action organs.

The purpose of the organs is for the soul to experience the enjoyment and eventually lead to emancipation. Total number of organs is 13. All sense organs are capable of sensing both subtle and gross elements. But the ordinary people can only sense gross elements. Intelligence presents the experiences to the soul. It is the intelligence that can distinguish between the root material (prakrti) and the root cause (soul).

Every feeling is created by a combination of the three gunas, characteristics, or properties. When a person is feeling very happy he has Sattava in very high percentage and other two are in low proportions. Same is true for all other various types of feelings. These three gunas are always in a dynamic state.


It is the first internal organ that is created during the creation process.

[SK, 23]
Intelligence is ascertainment or will. Virtue, knowledge, dispassion, and power are its manifestations when sattva attribute abounds. And the reverse of these, when tamas attribute abounds.


The I-Principle or Ahamkara in Sanskrit is created by the intelligence. The synonyms for the I-Principle are ego, self-consciousness etc.

[SK, 24]
Ahamkara is self-assertion; from that proceeds a two-fold evolution only, viz, the set of eleven and the five-fold primary elements.

Self-assertion: are like ‘I am entitled’, ‘I am competent to do this’, ‘all these objects are for me’ etc.


Mind is the third organ created in the process after Intelligenec and I-Principle.

[SK, 27]
Of these (sense organs), the Mind possesses the nature of both (the sensory and motor organs). It is the deliberating principle, and is also called a sense organ since it possesses properties common to the sense organs. Its multifariousness and also its external diversities are owing to special modifications of the Attributes.

Mind has a deliberating capacity. This means when mind sees a rope and vaguely thinks it may be a snake, then mind analyzes past knowledge, other information, and concludes that it is not a snake but a rope instead.

In Samkhya Karika the mind is defined as an organ. It is both a sense organ as well as an action organ; because it has similarities with these organs. Mind cooperates with these organs to make them work. There are 11 organs, 5 sense organs, 5 action organs and 1 mind. All 11 organs are created by the I-Principle and all of them have abundance of Sattava properties. The main function of the mind is observational.

The soul makes all the organs, including the mind, to work. No other motive can operate the organs. Mind is like the CEO, it works with all sense organs. All sense organs send information to mind for decision making. It is also like an operating system executive, which plays the same role of CEO.


10C: Reincarnation

Tinged: Subtle body is tinged with dispositions, just like a cloth becomes tinged with perfume. The dispositions are: Virtue and vice, knowledge and ignorance, passion and dispassion, power and weakness. These dispositions are with the intelligence and since subtle body contains intelligence it gets tinged.

[SK, 62]
Thus, verily, Purusa is never bound, nor is he released nor does he migrate. (It is the) Prakrti, being the support of manifold creation, that migrates, is bound and released.

It is not the spirit that is migrating. It is the subtle body that is attached to the spirit remains bound, migrates. This verse 62 also confirms that nature has to perform its acts in a long sequence with its manifold creations, life after life.

Thus reincarnation is necessary to acquire experiences, for improvement of soul, to enjoy life, suffer pain, and to learn the truth that soul is not same as material world made of root material, and thus emancipate.



10D: Liberation

8. Liberation

This section presents Samkhya Theory for liberation from pain and suffering from life. Liberation from cycles of birth or reincarnation cannot be achieved as we discuss in this section.

Liberation of human life or soul is the process of experiencing life to acquire true knowledge. Once you acquire the knowledge, this knowledge then must be experienced using yogic meditation.

We have discussed global destiny which guides how the soul will progress. We have also discussed about eternal recurrence which says that life comes back to the same state and does the same thing again.

However, soul evolves all the time and at some point it will acquire enough experiences and it will know the ultimate truth that soul is not nature, it is inactive, it is a witness, and at that time it will not feel any pain and pleasure. This is the liberated state. But the soul will still stay with the subtle body. Subtle body never dies as mentioned in [SK, 39] and therefore will still reincarnate.

Moreover, human being does not have freewill and is bound by the global plan of the destiny. Thus no individual effort can allow an individual soul to escape reincarnation. We take birth not only for own self but also for others according to the global plan defined by the simultaneity law. Once we understand these concepts, life will be easier, we will not feel the pain, and will be liberated from the cycles of suffering.


Using intelligence a man learns about nature. The nature creates different objects for intelligence to learn about them. The only purpose of doing this by nature is for the evolution of the soul. By practicing meditation soul then achieves the ultimate truth.

[SK, 37]
It is the Intelligence that accomplishes the experiences with regard to all objects to the Soul. It is that again that discriminates the subtle difference between the Nature and the Soul.

Experience: It gathers all the information received from all other organs, analyzes, coordinates, generates the knowledge, experiences, and communicates to the soul. It passes on the enjoyment of feelings of pleasure and pain.

Discrimination: It is the intelligence only that discriminates between the root material or nature and the soul. Discrimination is the knowledge of knowing the difference between nature or the creation and the soul. This understanding of the difference helps to create the salvation or liberation. Thus in every life soul gains two things – experience about nature and knowledge about its own difference with nature.

[SK, 56]
Thus, then, this evolution from Intelligence down to Specific entities is brought about by the modifications of Nature in the interest of another appearing as if in her own interest, for the release of each individual soul.

Selfless: Thus nature helps to liberate the soul. Nature created the subtle body for the soul. The soul does not do any good to the nature. Soul is inactive, but nature is active because of the Rajas guna. Nature does not derive anything back from the soul because nature is unconscious. The entire process of evolution is generated by the nature for the evolution of the soul only. Thus selfless activity or the Nishkam Karma is an inborn activity of our body. We know how to do it by our heart and soul. Thus whenever we violate it and perform adharma we automatically recognize the adharma. Nobody needs to be taught what an illegal or selfish activity is.

[SK, 59]
Just as a dancing girl ceases to dance after having exhibited herself to the spectators, so also, the Nature ceases to operate after having exhibited herself to Soul.

Like a dancing girl showing her skills to spectators the nature also shows all her skills to intelligence, I-principle, mind, subtle body, and other sensors which are enjoyed by the soul. Once the soul acquires a specific experience and knowledge then that specific action by the nature also ceases to continue. Such sequence of experiences is used by nature to help in the acquisition of knowledge by soul.

[SK, 60]
The benevolent Nature, endowed with attributes, brings about, by manifold means, in a manner in which she has no interest of her own, the good of the Spirit, who is devoid of the attributes and who confers no benefit in return.

Thus nature comes to the soul in many different forms, divine, human, sub-human and gives soul to enjoy life with pleasure, pain, and delusion only to let the soul realize you are different than me, the nature. The soul in return does not give anything to nature because the soul does not have the three attributes – Sattava, Rajas, Tamas, and is also not active. The nature is really very kind and grand and full of things to enjoy for the sole benefit of the soul.

Thus the desire to acquire knowledge is built into our mind body and soul. The idea that nobody will go for education in a moneyless economy is false. In an MLE people will be more naturally attracted to acquire the true knowledge of soul, nature, and emancipation.

[SK, 64]
Thus, from the practice of Truth, is produced the wisdom in the form: ‘I am not,’ ‘nothing is mine,’ and ‘not-I,’ which is final, pure on account of the absence of error, and absolute (knowledge).

Through a long practice, involving yogic methods, one experiences the knowledge of distinction between the soul and the matter. This knowledge is pure, absolute, and unique truth. Only this knowledge can help in liberation. When the soul realizes that ‘I am not’ an agent as stated in [SK, 20], ‘I am not the I’ then the knowledge is complete. This knowledge helps to remove all feeling of pleasure, pain, and delusion. The soul can then perform selfless karma, remain active, and yet detached.

[SK, 66]
The one (Soul) thinks: ‘she has been seen by me’ and therefore, loses all interest; the other (Nature) thinks ‘I have been seen’ and ceases to act further. Therefore, even if there is still connection there is no motive for further evolution.

The nature continues, repeatedly, life after life, give experience to the soul, until the soul acquires the discriminative knowledge. Thus enjoyment of the sense objects remains as long as the erroneous knowledge remains in the soul.

The experience and release are both the purposes of the spirit. It is this purpose that motivates the nature to make it visible to the soul. It remains visible, as long as nature realizes I have been seen. This act of nature should be considered as sequence of acts. One act for one time in one life time by nature cannot provide such knowledge to the soul.


Physical pain can be for eternal. But nature helps you to acquire knowledge to remove this pain. Once you acquire this knowledge the nature stops evolving for you.

[SK, 55]
Therein does the sentient Spirit experience pain caused by decay and death on account of the non-cessation of the subtle body. Therefore, pain is in very nature of things.

Life always and continuously suffers from pain. Minor diseases, major diseases, body and joint aches are always there. Dry and itchy skin, cracks and wounds, improper sleep, indigestion are always giving pain. Normal doctors will not be able to help. The pain will come back again in different forms. Modern medicine always comes with side effects.

Thus to release from this pain it will require salvation by using yogic means – exercise and meditation. A yogi does not suffer from pain and die by casting off his body. There are some great souls who die with momentary disorders, like heart attack when sleeping in night; otherwise they maintain a clean health. Thus by acquiring the true knowledge, i.e., we are not our bodies, and we are our souls; we can relieve us from the pain.

Rabindranath, a Nobel Laureate, was the greatest Bhakta (devotee), philosopher, and poet of modern India. He confirms the liberation along the Samkhya way:

As long as my heart and soul are with the infinite, no matter how far I go, I do not see pain, death, and separation. Realization of your own self all the time in my life, relieves me in moments from internal suffering, and burden of life [Tagore, Tomaro aseeme].

This verse 57 gives an example of how nature works for the benefit of others. Non-intelligent milk flows only to help the calf. Note that this action cannot be considered as the action of a sentient being, the soul. The soul itself is inactive. All actions come from nature only. Nature is active because of its Rajas guna. Thus nature acts only to relieve the soul by motivating the soul to acquire true knowledge. Pain is also created for the similar reasons by the subtle body.

[SK, 57]
Just as the secretion of milk which is unintelligent, is for the sake of the nourishment of the calf, similar is the action of the Nature for the sake of the release of Soul.

[SK, 65]
By means of this knowledge, the Spirit, as a witness, pure and at ease, beholds Nature, which has ceased from evolving products, and desisted from the seven forms of evolution, under the influence of the purpose of the Spirit.

It says there are seven forms of evolution: virtue, vice, ignorance, dispassion, passion, power, and weakness. Thus evolution will cease when all seven characteristics become complete. This completeness can take very long time and many life times. It may stop temporarily but again ignorance may start because of the evolution of the global plan. Thus the soul will always remain in contact with the intelligence and the subtle body to perceive the nature.

Moreover, as we have mentioned, we are all guided by the global destiny, which is based on the simultaneity law. Thus I may be needed by someone else. Thus my ignorance, which may be due to lack of my knowledge that someone else needs me, can never end.

[SK, 68]
When (in course of time) separation from the body has taken place, and there is the cessation of activity of the Nature, for the reason of the purpose having been fulfilled, (Soul) attains both absolute and final Freedom.

The verse states that “Soul attains both absolute and final Freedom”. But it does not say “what the Freedom from” is. Is the freedom from cycles of birth or freedom from the sufferings in life due to reincarnations?

The Smakhya Theory starts with the concept of finding the truth. It says if you know the truth only then you can be happy. Therefore the theory is not about how to avoid reincarnation but how to avoid suffering. Thus this verse SK 68 is about freedom from suffering.

The author of this book believes that freedom from reincarnation is not possible for various reasons: (a) reincarnation is a law of nature and no human can overcome that (b) Gita verse [G.2.27] says a person who has died must be born again, and who has born must die. Thus this Gita verse establishes that reincarnation is a law of nature (c) Another Gita verse [G.4.5] says both Krishna and Arjun were born many times before Mahabharat period, Krishna remembers all his previous births but Arjun does not. Thus Krishna, who is considered as god by many, does not have freedom from reincarnations.

(d) Another Gita verse [G.4.8] says Krishna will come millennium after millennium to reestablish dharma in the societies. Thus Krishna could not escape destiny. (e) [SK, 39] says subtle body is ever lasting. Therefore it will be born again. Verse [SK, 39] means soul cannot escape the bondage of subtle body. (f) Nobody can escape destiny. A soul does not have freedom to achieve freedom from reincarnations; it is tied by the simultaneity law which created global destiny. (g) A soul is born for helping other souls. Soul does not take life only for himself. So the soul will continue with rebirth. (h) Soul cannot learn everything about universe. The universe is continuously changing, so knowledge is changing also. (i) Gita verse [G.7.26] says nobody can learn soul completely. Thus a soul cannot learn itself. Thus the knowledge is never ending and therefore reincarnation cannot be escaped. Therefore the condition of [SK, 68], the “purpose have been fulfilled” only means liberation from suffering.

When a soul learns the difference between soul and the nature, then he learns to become detached from nature. The soul becomes free from suffering and pain. The soul is a yogi now.

9. Happiness

Happiness is the goal for every human being, but Samkhya says you can get happiness only by acquiring the ultimate truth. All other methods will give you temporary solutions. Pain is eternal, from [SK, 55] described before; we see that as long as the subtle body is with us we will have pain.

[SK, 1]
From the torment caused by the three kinds of pain, proceeds a desire for inquiry into the means of terminating them; if it be said that (the inquiry) is superfluous since visible means exist, (we reply), not so; because (in the visible means) there is absence of certainty (in the case of the means) and permanency (of pain).

Three kinds: There are three kinds of pain and they are intra-organic, caused by external influences, and caused by supernatural agencies. Intra-organic is twofold – bodily and mental. Pains due to external influences are due to man, beast, animals, viruses etc. The pains due to supernatural causes may be due to destiny: accidents, floods, earthquake, wars, cold, heat etc.

But there are many remedies for removing such pains. However sooner or later we realize that such pain removing methods are not permanent and create other kinds of pain, called side effects. For example mental pain can be removed by having objects like charming women, pleasing drinks, foods, cosmetics, houses, cars etc. There are similarly easy methods for removing other kinds of pains also.

But we see that these obvious methods do not cure the pains permanently. Sometimes the old pain comes back, sometimes side effects appear or the original pain appears in a different form. Or the cure of one pain creates another pain of different kind particularly of mental types. Therefore the question still haunts us, or will haunt in some life as we gain more experiences about life: how to get rid of pains permanently. The Samkhya philosophy provides that knowledge, which will permanently remove the pain and bring happiness.

[SK, 2]
The scriptural means is like the obvious means since it is linked with impurity, decay and excess. The means contrary to both and proceeding from the Discriminative knowledge of the Manifest, the Unmanifest and the Spirit, is superior.

Knowledge: We must learn the truth. It is necessary to practice this truth by yogic means over many life times. This truth is the knowledge that gives the ability to discriminate between the soul and the nature. The distinction among manifest, unmanifest, and the soul can only help to know that the soul is inactive, it is the nature that creates the pleasure and pain and not the soul. It is the desire of the soul that causes the pain, so we must understand the soul and objects it creates, and their differences. Only this knowledge can give us happiness. This knowledge will allow us to remain detached from nature, become a yogi, and perform selfless karma for the society. This approach to life will bring permanent relief from pain.

This true knowledge, that is, the discriminative knowledge between soul and nature, and then experiencing this knowledge via yogic meditation will allow us to create a body with certain combination of three gunas that will make the body free from all kinds of pain.


10. Conclusions

To create an object we need some material and some effort. The root material and the root effort, according to Samkhy Theory, are both unmanifested objects. This root material is called primordial nature, or simply the nature, and the root effort is provided by the soul.

The soul always wants to enjoy the nature. Therefore nature joins the soul to create objects. The soul is conscious but inactive; the nature is unconscious but active. Thus when joined together they can sustain life together.

In one lifetime it is not possible to know the universe, so the soul reincarnates eternally life after life. However, in every life besides enjoying nature, it also suffers from pain. Suffering from this pain, the soul eventually learns to meditate and becomes a yogi in some life.

Using this meditation process, a man learns that he is a soul and not the body. He understands that the nature is separate from the soul. He then does not feel any more pain and feels liberated. The soul still takes birth, because we are born for others, but he does not suffer anymore. A true yogi never becomes sick; he can heal any sick person also. A true yogi learns how to castoff his body.