cause and effect

1A: Definition of Truth

The diagram in Figure 1.1 will illustrate the mechanism of destiny prediction. The photo of the thinking man in the Figure 1.1 is taken from the website https://unsplash.com/photos/rMch6Pu3Jrg

Everything that happens in the universe, including our earth, is already programmed in the memory of the universe. Our souls read them and then execute them in our brains. Each person’s memory activities are readable by anyone who can acquire that skill by using yogic power. Thus all past, present, and future actives are stored in the memory of the universe. More details of memory concept are discussed in the chapter on memory in this book. A physics textbook says – “Events do not happen; they are just there, and we come across them”. Thus the destiny mechanism is nothing but like a TV serial; everybody in the studio knows what is coming next.

Reincarnation

Reincarnation is a law of nature. It says that after death, you will be born again. That is, every object that takes birth must die; and every object that dies must also come back to life by birth again. This birth, maturity, and death process continues indefinitely and is controlled by the global destiny only. Bible says – everything that happens will happen again. Most of us live in a matured state for long time to perform our responsibilities assigned by the destiny law.

As always, nature demonstrates all its laws. The following demonstration gives a proof of reincarnation.

A baby boy is born in a hospital. Everybody, including doctors, nurses, and parents recognizes that the baby has a bullet wound entry mark at chest and a bullet wound exit mark at the back. When the boy grows and learns to speak, he slowly mentions many things about his past life in bits and pieces, which summarizes to the following. In the last life, his name was N, he died on date D at the hospital H in a town T, due to a gunshot wound on his chest. Research scholars, news reporters visit the hospital H in town T and verify all the facts that the boy said. They even verify from the autopsy record of previous life body that the birthmarks of the boy match the wounds in the previous body. Such kids, who remember previous life, are called Jatiswar in Sanskrit language.

In another similar Jatswar case the boy was operated by doctors at his little older age to save his life. Doctors found the entire straight line bullet wound path inside the body of the boy. These are very convincing cases for reincarnation, where a physical mark is moved from the previous body to the present body, along with all the past life memories. More details are given in the reincarnation chapter of this book.

Reincarnation is the greatest discovery of the mankind. Whether we know it or not, it does not affect our life activities; just like Galileo’s discovery does not affect us. But the knowledge of reincarnation can profoundly affect our mindset, culture, values, philosophy, and society. It must be realized that no one can stop his reincarnation; and it is completely controlled by destiny. Even Krishna reincarnates at precisely predicted times and millennium after millennium as mentioned in Gita.

Eternal recurrence

It was probably the greatest disaster in our history that reincarnation was removed from the Bible. Of course, it was done by the design of the destiny law. Lack of reincarnation law in Bible has caused racism, religious violence, nationalism, wars, etc. The lack of understanding of reincarnation and destiny law show our ignorance that by only killing a dictator we cannot get rid of him; he will be born again with similar characteristics. This is called eternal recurrence or history repeats itself. The Bible says whatever has happened will happen again, and there is nothing new under the sun. Eternal recurrence was made popular in the west by the German philosopher Nietzsche. Gita, which is a part of Vedas, and is discussed in the Vedic theory chapter, has a verse that says you begin your next life the way you ended the previous life. See the reincarnation chapter also for more details.

This eternal recurrence feature may destroy our philosophy of globalization or One World Order on earth. We can see its impact on the concept behind formation of EU. We are back with Brexit, nationalism, anti-migration, border walls etc., after about 70 years from WW2.

Cause and effect

Bible’s sow and reap, Newton’s action and reaction, and cause and effect law of Vedas are all same. In the chapter on conservation laws we show that all the laws of physics can be reduced to the cause and effect law or can be derived from this cause and effect law.

Bible says we are made out of dust. This is not the dust on our earth; this is the cosmic dust particles, which fill the entire universe. Like the soul, this dust particle is a tiniest invisible particle. It does not have consciousness and normally remains neutral. It has three properties: Intelligence (Sattya), Darkness (Tamas), and Energy (Rajas). A soul, which is the root cause, uses this root material (dust) to create all objects, which are effects, in the universe. The three properties change according to the desire of the soul to create many different types of objects. The root material is also eternally existent.

The complexity of the cause and effect law comes from the fact that all objects are simultaneously and continuously connected for all past, present, and future times. Thus every cause has multiple effects. For example, when you speak inside your home then everybody in your home listens to you and thus everybody gets affected. In the same way there are no single cause, there are infinitely many causes for every effect. And which cause will be used at any moment is written only in the memory of the universe and is predetermined. Thus it will be impossible for anyone, excepting a yogi, to predict which effect will happen. Thus, for all of us, it will remain completely unknown to find which one is the cause and which one is the effect. Moreover causes may come from past life, and also may be for future life reasons, as described by the destiny law. Take a look at the destiny law chapter for details.

Simultaneity Law

A very important law of nature is the simultaneity law. It says anything and everything in this world or in the universe happens because of

Another interpretation of this simultaneity law is that everything in this universe is tightly interconnected. If anything changes at any time, and at any location, then everything else will change also. If you make some changes then everybody will be affected and similarly, if someone makes any move then you will also be affected. This is true for sun, moon, and earth also. Our entire galaxy is very closely connected together.

We can represent this connectivity graphically using a block diagram like the one shown in Figure-1.2. Here the rectangular boxes represent objects of nature. They can be living or nonliving objects. They can be electrons, humans, and planets etc. Each object is connected to all other objects with spring like interfaces as shown by zigzag and dashed lines. If any object moves then we can see how all objects of the universe will move and react. Thus the universe is continuously moving as a total dynamic system. Figure-1.2 represents the global plan created by the simultaneous action reaction of all objects, including all humans in nature.

The diagram also shows that we do not have any ability to change anything. Instead we are changing, because everything else is changing. Just like our sun or earth cannot change by itself. Earth is tied with the solar system, which in turn is tied with the galaxy. The sun cannot take any path as it desires, because it is situated in one of the spiral wings of the galaxy in which we belong. This diagram represents our global destiny. Our individual destinies are intimately tied with this global plan created by the simultaneity law of action-reaction, cause and effect, and the organized structure of the universe. There is no difference between living and nonliving objects. We are all souls and are interconnected with all the souls of the universe.

Thus the real truth lies in this universe of the connected system. You and I cannot define, know, or find the absolute truth, unless we learn to see the details of this universal mechanism. We will see that the guiding principle behind this law of nature or the truth is the soul theory.

 

9B: Modelling Destiny

4. Action Reaction Law

In this section we show, using the laws of nature, how we are tied up by our destiny, moment by moment, from our past actions. Thus we are actually living in the past. Anything we do now is determined by our activities in the past. This is a microscopic analysis rather than a global analysis. However, this foundation of microscopic view will help us to understand the global plan for our destiny. Bible says “Be not deceived; God is not mocked: for whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap”[Bible, Galatians 6:7]. We will see that this statement is valid even at time gaps of milliseconds; we do not have to wait for years to reap the results. This will in turn say that we cannot have freewill; we are guided by our past.

Newton’s Third Law

The action-reaction law or the Newton’s third law is an important law of nature. It can be found in [Serway, p.120] and has been explained in the following way. In an isolated environment, the forces always occur in pairs or that a single isolated force cannot exist. Any one of these two forces can be called the action force, and the other one then can be called the reaction force. The reaction force (F2) is equal in magnitude of the action force (F1) and of opposite in direction and can be written as in (9.1):

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The law of conservation (LOC) of mass and energy are two important laws of nature. It has been shown [Das, 2012-1] that this is the only meaningful law of nature; all other laws of physics are either equivalent to or can be derived from this law. The law says that mass and energy cannot be created or destroyed. Thus the sigma of all masses is a constant; the same is true for energy. They can only be transformed or transferred. Thus to produce a car we must use materials and energy from nature. It cannot be created out of nothing. We call LOC as the sigma law.

Time and Action-Reaction

In this subsection we show how laws of nature can be used to prove that the present is defined by the past. That is, the destiny idea follows clearly and in a straight forward way from the action reaction law. This will also prove we cannot have freewill at present moment.

As we have mentioned, this law says that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. This reaction, according to the law, is supposed to happen instantaneously. But in nature nothing happens like that, everything takes some time. Thus if an action F1 happens at time t, then its reaction F2 will happen at dt time later, where dt is a very small time, can be called observational delay, measurement delay, or reaction time etc. Thus F2 will happen at time t+dt. We know that this F2 will be equal and opposite of F1, thus we can write F2 = – F1. Since we know F1, we thus know F2 also. Thus future is clearly known, this is future because t+dt is future time. Thus the action reaction law clearly states that the destiny is precisely defined and can be found if we know the present. In the Libet’s experiment, described later, we will see that what we do now is the result of a command or action received milliseconds before now. But our sense organs do not sense this command.

The above logic can be applied in the same way to describe the past of any action that happened now at time t. Suppose an action F1 happened at present time t. Then according to action reaction law an action F2 must have happened at t-dt time, and F2 must be equal to – F1. Thus the past F2 is completely known from the present F1. If that was not the case then the action F1 could not have happened. Thus the entire trajectory of all actions is completely planned. In this case also, the logic leads to the equation (9.1).

We have explained all humans are tightly integrated in our world with our simultaneous actions and reactions. This integration is not just in present life, because of reincarnation law we were connected in our past lives also. The past life actions are working in the present life too.

According to simultaneity law for any action there will be more than one reaction at any future time t+dt. So the number of reactions, N in (9.2), will be very large, and the share of any action among all the reactions will be very difficult to find out. But theoretically we understand that, it can be found out, that is, the action reaction law is valid. Thus we must extend our logic from expression (9.1) to expression (9.2) to incorporate the simultaneity law of nature.

Note that at time t+dt many other new reactions will also interfere with the object, beside the reactions originated by F1. Thus all objects must be considered simultaneously to find the total reaction on any object.

It must be understood clearly, that because of simultaneity law I do not create my destiny. My destiny is created by the actions of many people working together, including past life activities with many people. Thus my destiny is tied with the global plan of the society. The notion that I create my destiny, I create my karma, I am independent are not correct and goes against the simultaneity law and reincarnation law of nature. We are not isolated individuals, we are together, and are highly integrated through our activities. Thus it is not my destiny, it is our destiny.

Good and Bad

Since everything is a consequence of a chain of action reaction law beginning from eternity and everything is also simultaneously controlled under a global plan, everything is part of global destiny. We are all working, in a sense helplessly, without any freewill. That is, our hands are tied. Therefore nothing in this world can be good or bad. We are not doing anything, everything is done by nature, and nature is never good or bad.

We never say apple is good and orange is bad or dog is good and cat is bad. Similarly we do not say sun is good and moon is bad, rain is bad and sun shine is good. We have accepted all of them as they are and never try to compare or criticize them. But unfortunately for many reasons we say Mr. X is good and Mr. Y is bad. But that should not be the case, because we are all part of nature, we do not have freewill, we are guided by destiny, which is a job done by nature, and is already preplanned. Thus there cannot exist good or bad people; we are all just different. We have come to this world for certain task assigned by nature and nature is guiding us to do that task, just like robots. How can then someone be good and someone else is bad?

Thus everything is beautiful, youthful, and heavenly. The blue sky, the green garden, moonlit night, soft flowers are all equally good. They all smile, sing, dance and play to die. They do not know pains, they do not cry, they have no worries. The flowers swing in the wind, they smile to fall on the ground. The moonlit night smilingly disappears, so do the billions of stars in the sky as the morning dawns. [Tagore – sokhi bhabona kahare].

5.       Modeling Destiny

We have seen the meaning of destiny, how it depends on our past activities, and our ability to predict future or past for short moments. For long term predictions, we will try to create a better understanding of destiny using the above concepts. Using an analytical approach, based on action reaction or sigma law, it will not be possible to predict anything at all. We will see why it is so, however, the approach will prove the existence of predictability. But we will see later in this chapter that using only yogic power yogis can predict future for very long time, and very precisely, including thousands of years in the future for any individual who has not even been born. In India there are such Sanskrit documents, called Vrigu Samhita and Agastha Nadi Samhita, each of which predicts future of about 400,000 people from all over the world.

In the chapter on conservation laws we have derived the model of the universe using a networking or system theory based concepts. Here we extend the action reaction law, which is same as the simultaneity law,

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bring in more freedom you lose. Consider the case of searching for a job in a corporation. When you are alone in your home you can imagine that you can take any job in that corporation: you can join marketing, sales, engineering, management etc. You have all options open when you are in your home. But when you go to that corporation you will find that they have only one position open for you, because all other people have taken all other positions. Thus simultaneous actions of all people have reduced your choices. Extending this concept to millions of people, which is equivalent to millions of variables, will produce only one solution for all time. Thus never in our life we will have any freedom of any choices.

We must point out that it is not that the nature is following our model, we are trying to explain how nature maybe working using our qualitative model of simultaneity law. We cannot do anything on our own in any case. If we try, it will disturb all the equations and all variables in (9.8). We must follow what these equations are telling us to do. And in fact we are just doing that every day in our corporate world. We know what exactly we have to do tomorrow in our office. We have our work cut out exactly. In fact life is very easy that way; we do not have to take the trouble of making decisions every day every moment. Following nature is much better than going against it and exerting our influences on the world. We actually cannot, as we will see the situation, in our local view described later. Thus simultaneity law represents the global destiny law. It represents our destiny.

Equation (9.10) says all souls are constantly in touch with each other and constantly talking to us and to you. Whatever you are thinking is because of other souls are communicating with your soul also. We examine this communication fact in unfolding destiny section of this chapter. Everything you do at every moment is planned and not just major events. There is absolutely no freewill anywhere. We have made the plan before our birth and we are here to execute it, just the way we do in our corporate world.

 

Chapter-10: Soul Theory

Discovery of SOUL is the greatest invention of mankind.

How did we discover it? How did we learn that the soul reincarnates? It seems they used the method of meditation. After several reincarnations, after experiencing all the pleasures and sorrows of the world, in some life we generate a suspicion that there is something beyond our body and mind. This suspicion leads to questions and searches for answers, which eventually leads to a concentrated effort. This concentrated effort is meditation, which we have described in chapter two on yogis and yogic powers.

One very powerful yogi named Kapil Muni is credited for discovery of this law of nature. You will also be able to see this law if you can acquire the yogic power of divine vision, described in chapter 11 on Vedic Theory. It is amazing to learn how he described his vision in only about 70 two-line Sanskrit verses. But that is all we have now. Kapil Muni is gone, his descriptions are lost, some of his students who memorized what he described, they are also gone. No one can interpret these verses, because they represent divine visions, we have neither seen, nor will ever experience. However, nature will never keep us ignorant, these great yogis will always comeback and reveal the truth for mankind, again and again.

This chapter also describes cause and effect law, which we now know as Newton’s action reaction law. But as you will see that the description of this cause and effect law is very powerful, all encompassing, and mind-boggling.

 

 

10A: Cause and Effect

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created everything in the universe, so our souls can also create same things, if we learn how to meditate. In this chapter we learn about soul directly from Veda, that is, from nature.

This chapter briefly covers the philosophy of Samkhya. It brings out the features of Samkhya that helped to create the contents of this book, or in other words, it describes the relevant parts of Samkhya. The entire Samkhya Karika [SK] has about 70 verses and we will probably discuss about 30 of them. Samkhya means numbers, and Karika means philosophy described using verses.

Vedas cannot be explained by anybody to anybody. Whatever is written and is available is the final document. Only yogis who acquire the divine vision can explain Vedas. All other explanations are like that of the blind men in the elephant story discussed in chapter 1. Veda is about nature, we are created by nature, and the creation cannot understand the creator. Only yogic power can allow us to understand Vedas or observe Vedas. Vedas are not man-made.

Samkhya is credited to Kapila Muni. Without the knowledge of Samkhya, Vedas (including Ramayan, Mahabharat, and Gita) cannot be understood properly. Samkhya gives the foundation of the theory that explains yogic power and other laws of nature. Samkhya is the most ancient of all philosophical thoughts. Its ideas have been mentioned in Rig Veda [SK, p.3]. In [Gita, 10:26] Krishna has been defined as – “… among perfected beings I am the sage Kapila”. Mahabharat says [Roy, Vol. 10, p.8] –“There is no knowledge that is equal to this (Sankhyas). Do not yield to any kind of doubt. The knowledge which is described in the system of the Sankhyas is regarded as the highest.” Swami [Vivekananda], a famous Indian philosopher of modern time, says the following – “This wonderful man, the most ancient of philosophers, is mentioned even in the shruti – O lord, thou who produced the sage Kapila in the Beginning”.

Happiness is the goal of every living person. But to achieve happiness one must know the truth. Samkhya describes that truth. The prescription is that practice complete isolation of soul from prakriti or nature. If you can achieve that using yogic means then you will be happy. This shows again that Yoga is the foundation to achieve happiness. Of course yoga gives many other benefits that can do miracles to individuals and to societies at large. Thus Veda, which includes Samkhya, is a very practical theory.

3.  Cause and Effect Law

Samkhya Karika [SK] describes many laws of nature. In this subsection we will briefly mention the law of conservation and the cause and effect law. The SK also talks about the law of reincarnation, but we will discuss that in another subsection. In a previous chapter we have seen that in physics there is basically only one law, that is the sigma law, or the law of conservation. In SK also we see only one law, the cause and effect law, which as SK says, depends on the law of conservation. In fact there is only one verse that states both the laws.

Consider the Figures 10.1 and 10.2. Figure-10.1 is taken from the website [Billiard]. In real life we see a man behind a force. Notice the difference with modern physics, the action reaction law of Newton in Figure-10.2.

Newton did not mention the need of a human being to produce the force. This made a significant difference; Samkhya searched for root cause for the force and the root material for the ball and found soul and prakriti (nature) respectively. On the other hand modern science completely ignored the cause and stayed with the material only and searched for the root material. Of course, as we have mentioned before, there were other reasons for ignoring the soul theory; the money power, and the central bank caused this to happen. The truth should not be allowed to be discovered.

Thus Samkhya describes two types of causes: (a) root efficient cause which creates all effects and (b) root material cause which creates all materials. We will often use the term cause to indicate both and hopefully context will help to identify the correct one.

Root Material – Prakriti

In our world we see that every object is composed of some other objects. So, if we keep on asking what is this object composed of, at

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knower, cognizer, spirit etc. Again this finite deductive logic proves the existence of soul.

Just like the environment of earth is filled with oxygen and nitrogen molecules, similarly the entire universe is filled with these root materials and root causes or souls. Just like all oxygen molecules are different but same so are the root materials and souls. The word efficient is used to mean that you must use correct or efficient materials to make a product. Similarly you must also bring the correct expertise to create the product. Anybody cannot make everything.

The root cause has some similarities with the root material, but they are quite different also. The most important similarity is that soul is unmanifested. It is plural, but equal, and spans the entire universe. Another important property is that it is conscious. It is eternal; it remains in every object but without any change, i.e. it is constant. According to SK, the soul is inactive, contrary to what normally we would have expected. It is the root material that is active.

The Law

With the above ideas of material and efficient causes we can now try to understand the cause and effect law of Samkhya;

[SK, 9]
The effect is ever existent, because (1) what is non-existent can by no means be brought into existence; (2) because effects take adequate material cause; (3) because all effects are not producible from all causes; (4) because an efficient cause can produce only that for which it is efficient; and finality, (5) because the effect is of same essence as the cause.

The conservation law part says – effect is ever existent; non-existent cannot be brought into existence. This is very similar to what we have in modern physics.

The cause and effect part can be described the following way. Consider the example of making a pot out of clay. Here we need a man and a wheel, then place the mud or clay on the wheel, turn the wheel, use his special skills to convert the clay to a pot.

Here SK.9 explicitly states that two types of causes are necessary: material cause and efficient cause to create a product. You cannot make a pot out of any material, you must select appropriate materials – this is the material cause. Also not any procedure will make the pot. You must use a skilled person and his tools to make the pot – this is the efficient cause. Both are included in all modern engineering procedures, but not so in physics.

The law says that every material effect is inside the material cause. The material effect is pot and the material cause is the clay. To distinguish the two items we gave them two names, clay and pot. In the same way to distinguish the two material shapes, for general cases, we called them cause and effect. The experiment only changed the shape of the material, from clay to pot. We have discussed this as part of law of conservation in a previous chapter.

Without the efficient cause, which is the work performed by humans, the efficient effect, the pot, cannot be produced. The human work done, transformed the clay into the pot. The shape of the pot now hides the work done. This is so because the law says cause and effect are similar. The physical work got transformed into two sequential stages, efficient cause and then efficient effect.

This description of the law leads to the search for root material cause and root efficient cause. Like in physics, cause and effect are two same words. In a chain of cause and effect, anyone can be called cause and other one the effect. However, there will be two end points, starting point will be the root cause, and the end point will be the final effect. This is true for both material causes and efficient causes. Efficient cause is a work or activity and is produced by humans only; the efficient cause only changes the shape of material or gives a motion to the material object.

Interesting thing to remember is that there are two types of causes:

  • Material and efficient.
  • Also, the effect (pot) is already there in the material cause (clay). It only changed the shape.

4. Existence of Soul

Unmanifest

This is about the existence of the unmanifested root material cause. The root efficient cause is described later.

[SK,15-16]
The unmanifest cause exists because of (1) the finite nature of special objects; (2) homogeneity; (3) evolution being due to the efficiency of the cause; (4) the differentiation between cause and effect; (5) the non-differentiation or merging of the whole world of effects; (6) its operation through the three attributes by combination and modification, like water, through differences arising from diverse nature of the several receptacles of the attributes.

Finiteness: We see that in nature everything is finite. We have discussed this before as the finiteness law of nature. A potter makes only a finite number of pots out of a finite amount of clay. The number of potters is also finite. The verse then implies that if the there were no unmanifest material cause, then we would have found infinite number of products.

In our world we have two objects which are infinite – the real numbers and the money. Both are infinite, you can print as much money as you want, it is abundant and free. So are the real numbers. On our computers we can create infinite amount of real numbers and artificial

money. The verse this way proves that mathematics and economics are false because it does not have an unmanifested cause. In fact both of them do not have any material cause.

Homogeneity: We see that all objects in nature are homogeneous in character. They all have three attributes – Sattava, Rajas, and Tamas gunas. That means there is a common cause for all of them. This is the root material cause.

Efficiency: The evolution of different objects in the world is because of the different efficient cause of the soul. A potter makes only pot and not cloth. Since different effect indicates different efficient cause, these causes must exist in the unmanifest.

Differentiation: The cause and effect are different. In the case of pot, it has a different shape than the clay. But the clay is the cause of the pot. Thus pot remains as unmanifested effect inside clay. In the same way clay remains unmanifested in another cause. Sequentially we will arrive at the unmaniseted root material cause. This root material cause is causeless.

Merging: At dissolution the pot becomes clay. In the same way all objects merge with the root material.

Combination and modification: Every product is made by modifying the three attributes – Savatta, Rajas, and Tamas. It is like making a color on a TV screen by using three basic colors RGB, Red, Green, and Blue. The root material remains in equilibrium with the three gunas. But all objects are made by combining objects with varying proportions of the attributes. Just like water, when it rains all drops are same, but on ground, where it gets stored, based on the characteristics of the storage place water acquires different tastes.

Manifest

Sankhya Karika says two kinds of objects exist in nature. They are manifested and unmanifested objects. The soul is unmanifested. Its characteristics are described by the following verse:

[SK, 10]
The manifested is producible, non-eternal, non-pervasive, active, multiform, dependant, serving as a mark (of inference), aggregate of parts and subordinate. The unmanifest is the reverse of this.

All manifested objects are products; they are caused by some material and efficient causes. They are non-eternal; so they are destructible. They are not all pervading like the root material and the soul. For manifest is a product; a product cannot span the entire universe, like the root material, which is unmanifested. It is active: because it migrates at the time of creation; it incarnates; it grows and dies. They are multiform: each product is different from the other. They are dependent: because they are supported by their respective causes. They are marks: because they are different from the root materials; they are objects. They are subordinate: because one is created by the other in a sequence of material and efficient causes. They are collection of parts.

The unmanifest is reverse of the manifest; it is eternal, all pervasive, inactive, without cause, independent etc. The unmanifests are root material and the root cause, which is the soul. These are thus only two types of unmanifested objects; all others are manifested.

The Soul

There is a need for soul. All the objects are created for the soul and by the soul for it to enjoy them and eventually use them to liberate itself from the pain of life.

[SK, 17]
The spirit exists because (a) the aggregate is for another’s sake; (b) of the absence of three gunas and other properties; (c) there must be some controller; (d) there must be some experiencer; and (e) of the tendency of activities towards final beatitude.

Aggregate: The manifested objects are made for somebody’s requirements. For example a bed, bed frame, mattress etc are designed for a man to sleep. Similarly all aggregates are made for the enjoyment of the soul or the spirit.

It can be argued that nature or the manifested is not for the soul, but for another aggregate. In that case every aggregate will be for the purpose for another aggregate. This process can be continued for infinity, making the logic meaningless. Thus aggregate must be for the soul. The soul cannot be an aggregate and must be unmanifest.

Gunas: Then we know from verse [SK, 11] that the three gunas are not for the soul, they are only for the manifests. Spirit is not composite. All composites have three gunas.

Controller: There must be some controller. Pleasure, pain, and delusion that humans experience must be controlled. For that we need the soul. Since these characteristics of pleasure etc. come from the matter, the entire manifest must have controller, and the spirit is that controller.

Experiencer: The soul is inactive and but conscious. Only soul does not have three gunas and so only it can experience the manifests. Only it can enjoy the pleasure and pain. Intelligence or I-principle cannot enjoy because they also have the characteristics of pleasure and pain because these characteristics are made of the three gunas.

Beatitude: The final beatitude is characterized by complete cessation of pleasure and pain from all the manifested objects. This cannot be for intelligence or great principle etc. because they are composed of pleasure and pain. It can only be for that object which does not have these gunas; and therefore soul must exist.

Observe that controller is the soul that created the object. Experiencer is also the soul. It enjoys its creation and the creations of all the other souls. Thus there is no other creator than the individual soul. There is no creator for the universe. Every object in the universe is created by their respective souls. The universe is enjoyed by all the souls.

There are many souls and not one soul. That is stated in the following verse with the observations:

[SK, 18]
The multiplicity of the Sprit is verily established (1) from the individual allotment of birth, death, and the instruments, (2) from non-simultaneity of activities, and (3) from the diverse modifications due to the three gunas.

There exists a notion that there is only one soul that controls all living being, the above verse explains the infeasibility of that concept. If the soul were one and dwelling in all bodies, then if one dies everyone else would die also, if one becomes blind all would be blind, which would cause lot of confusions.

So it may be possible that this notion is not a result of divine vision. It will contradict Samkhya. Vedas, which are laws of nature, cannot contradict itself. There is a Gita verse, which we will discuss in another chapter, which says a soul cannot be broken into pieces. Thus one soul cannot be part of a bigger or greater soul.

Soul Commands

We can see from the way the body and its organs are created, and the sequence of their creation that they do not have any kind of intelligence. Intelligence itself is created first by the interaction of the soul and the root material. Thus the body or brain cannot have any freewill. We are not our body, we are our souls.

[SK, 31]

The organs enter into their respective modifications being incited by mutual impulse. The purpose of the Spirit is the sole motive (for the activity of the organs). By none whatsoever is an organ made to act.

Organs work only when the soul tells them to work. This shows that our physical body cannot tell the organs to work; that is, we do not have any freewill. Thus the body works only when soul intends it to the work. Thus only soul can have freewill. But we know, due to the global plan, which is based on the plan of all souls, the individual soul acts. Thus even individual soul cannot also have freewill.

5.   Three Gunas

We know that the computer screen or TV screen colors are created by three basic colors called RGB which means Red, Green and Blue. By combination of various percentages of these three basic colors all the different colors in the screen are produced.

In the same way Samkhya has found out that humans have three types of feelings pleasure, pain, and delusion. The causes of these feelings are created by the three properties or gunas of the root material. These properties are Sattava, Rajas, and Tamas respectively. Note that these are not properties of soul; they are the properties of the root material. Since all objects are created from the root material, all objects also have these three characteristics in different proportions.

Sattava and Tamas are of opposite characteristics. They are also inert properties. They cannot do anything on their own. It is the Rajas that make them work, energizes them to act. How much Sattava and how

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[SK, 12]
The attributes are of the nature of pleasure, pain, and delusion; they serve the purpose of illumination, action, and restraint and they are mutually dominating and supporting, productive and cooperative.

Savatta gives pleasure, Rajas gives pain, and Tamas creates delusion. Savatta is illuminating, Rajas has action oriented characteristics, and Tamas creates restraints.

Rajas makes the root material active type; whereas root cause, the soul, is inactive. Rajas motivates the Sattava and Tamas to become active. Inherently Sattava and Tamas are inactive. Rajas is exciting because it is mobile. It is the rajas guna that keeps the other two continuously active. However if Tamas is very strong then it can restrain the power of Rajas. The root material is always in equilibrium condition with these three gunas. The activity of gunas starts only at the time of creation or when in interface with the soul.

These three properties are mutually dominating. That is, when one becomes active for some purpose, the other two remain suppressed. For example Sattava attains its calm nature only by dominating over Rajas and Tamas. They are mutually supporting also, for example Savtta gives illumination to Rajas and Tamas.

These properties thus have contradictory behavior but they also have a single objective to emancipate the soul.

 

10B: Theory of Creation

 

6. Theory of Creation

The root material is active; it has the rajas guna, which has the mobile characteristics. But the root material is unconscious. On the other hand the root cause, the soul is inactive, but it has the consciousness. Thus when two are joined together they complement each other and become a conscious product, i.e., a physical object with consciousness. The root cause and the root material span the entire universe. So they are always together and in contact with each other. There is no need to bring them together.

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sense organs are capable of sensing both subtle and gross elements. But the ordinary people can only sense gross elements. Intelligence presents the experiences to the soul. It is the intelligence that can distinguish between the root material (prakriti) and the root cause (soul).

Every feeling is created by a combination of the three gunas, characteristics, or properties. When a person is feeling very happy he has Sattava in very high percentage and other two are in low proportions. Same is true for all other various types of feelings. These three gunas are always in a dynamic state.

Intelligence

It is the first internal organ that is created during the creation process.

[SK, 23]
Intelligence is ascertainment or will. Virtue, knowledge, dispassion, and power are its manifestations when sattva attribute abounds. And the reverse of these, when tamas attribute abounds.

I-Principle

The I-Principle or Ahamkara in Sanskrit is created by the intelligence. The synonyms for the I-Principle are ego, self-consciousness etc.

[SK, 24]
Ahamkara is self-assertion; from that proceeds a two-fold evolution only, viz, the set of eleven and the five-fold primary elements.

Self-assertion: are like ‘I am entitled’, ‘I am competent to do this’, ‘all these objects are for me’ etc.

Mind

Mind is the third organ created in the process after Intelligenec and I-Principle.

[SK,27]
Of these (sense organs), the Mind possesses the nature of both (the sensory and motor organs). It is the deliberating principle, and is also called a sense organ since it possesses properties common to the sense organs. Its multifariousness and also its external diversities are owing to special modifications of the Attributes.

Mind has a deliberating capacity. This means when mind sees a rope and vaguely thinks it may be a snake, then mind analyzes past knowledge, other information, and concludes that it is not a snake but a rope instead.

In Samkhya Karika the mind is defined as an organ. It is both a sense organ as well as an action organ; because it has similarities with these organs. Mind cooperates with these organs to make them work. There are 11 organs, 5 sense organs, 5 action organs and 1 mind. All 11 organs are created by the I-Principle and all of them have abundance of Sattava properties. The main function of the mind is observational.

The soul makes all the organs, including the mind, to work. No other motive can operate the organs. Mind is like the CEO, it works with all sense organs. All sense organs send information to mind for decision making. It is also like an operating system executive, which plays the same role of CEO.