money. The verse this way proves that mathematics and economics are false because it does not have an unmanifested cause. In fact both of them do not have any material cause.
Homogeneity: We see that all objects in nature are homogeneous in character. They all have three attributes – Sattava, Rajas, and Tamas gunas. That means there is a common cause for all of them. This is the root material cause.
Efficiency: The evolution of different objects in the world is because of the different efficient cause of the soul. A potter makes only pot and not cloth. Since different effect indicates different efficient cause, these causes must exist in the unmanifest.
Differentiation: The cause and effect are different. In the case of pot, it has a different shape than the clay. But the clay is the cause of the pot. Thus pot remains as unmanifested effect inside clay. In the same way clay remains unmanifested in another cause. Sequentially we will arrive at the unmaniseted root material cause. This root material cause is causeless.
Merging: At dissolution the pot becomes clay. In the same way all objects merge with the root material.
Combination and modification: Every product is made by modifying the three attributes – Savatta, Rajas, and Tamas. It is like making a color on a TV screen by using three basic colors RGB, Red, Green, and Blue. The root material remains in equilibrium with the three gunas. But all objects are made by combining objects with varying proportions of the attributes. Just like water, when it rains all drops are same, but on ground, where it gets stored, based on the characteristics of the storage place water acquires different tastes.
Sankhya Karika says two kinds of objects exist in nature. They are manifested and unmanifested objects. The soul is unmanifested. Its characteristics are described by the following verse:
The manifested is producible, non-eternal, non-pervasive, active, multiform, dependant, serving as a mark (of inference), aggregate of parts and subordinate. The unmanifest is the reverse of this.
All manifested objects are products; they are caused by some material and efficient causes. They are non-eternal; so they are destructible. They are not all pervading like the root material and the soul. For manifest is a product; a product cannot span the entire universe, like the root material, which is unmanifested. It is active: because it migrates at the time of creation; it incarnates; it grows and dies. They are multiform: each product is different from the other. They are dependent: because they are supported by their respective causes. They are marks: because they are different from the root materials; they are objects. They are subordinate: because one is created by the other in a sequence of material and efficient causes. They are collection of parts.
The unmanifest is reverse of the manifest; it is eternal, all pervasive, inactive, without cause, independent etc. The unmanifests are root material and the root cause, which is the soul. These are thus only two types of unmanifested objects; all others are manifested.
There is a need for soul. All the objects are created for the soul and by the soul for it to enjoy them and eventually use them to liberate itself from the pain of life.
The spirit exists because (a) the aggregate is for another’s sake; (b) of the absence of three gunas and other properties; (c) there must be some controller; (d) there must be some experiencer; and (e) of the tendency of activities towards final beatitude.
Aggregate: The manifested objects are made for somebody’s requirements. For example a bed, bed frame, mattress etc are designed for a man to sleep. Similarly all aggregates are made for the enjoyment of the soul or the spirit.
It can be argued that nature or the manifested is not for the soul, but for another aggregate. In that case every aggregate will be for the purpose for another aggregate. This process can be continued for infinity, making the logic meaningless. Thus aggregate must be for the soul. The soul cannot be an aggregate and must be unmanifest.
Gunas: Then we know from verse [SK, 11] that the three gunas are not for the soul, they are only for the manifests. Spirit is not composite. All composites have three gunas.
Controller: There must be some controller. Pleasure, pain, and delusion that humans experience must be controlled. For that we need the soul. Since these characteristics of pleasure etc. come from the matter, the entire manifest must have controller, and the spirit is that controller.
Experiencer: The soul is inactive and but conscious. Only soul does not have three gunas and so only it can experience the manifests. Only it can enjoy the pleasure and pain. Intelligence or I-principle cannot enjoy because they also have the characteristics of pleasure and pain because these characteristics are made of the three gunas.
Beatitude: The final beatitude is characterized by complete cessation of pleasure and pain from all the manifested objects. This cannot be for intelligence or great principle etc. because they are composed of pleasure and pain. It can only be for that object which does not have these gunas; and therefore soul must exist.
Observe that controller is the soul that created the object. Experiencer is also the soul. It enjoys its creation and the creations of all the other souls. Thus there is no other creator than the individual soul. There is no creator for the universe. Every object in the universe is created by their respective souls. The universe is enjoyed by all the souls.
There are many souls and not one soul. That is stated in the following verse with the observations:
The multiplicity of the Sprit is verily established (1) from the individual allotment of birth, death, and the instruments, (2) from non-simultaneity of activities, and (3) from the diverse modifications due to the three gunas.
There exists a notion that there is only one soul that controls all living being, the above verse explains the infeasibility of that concept. If the soul were one and dwelling in all bodies, then if one dies everyone else would die also, if one becomes blind all would be blind, which would cause lot of confusions.
So it may be possible that this notion is not a result of divine vision. It will contradict Samkhya. Vedas, which are laws of nature, cannot contradict itself. There is a Gita verse, which we will discuss in another chapter, which says a soul cannot be broken into pieces. Thus one soul cannot be part of a bigger or greater soul.
We can see from the way the body and its organs are created, and the sequence of their creation that they do not have any kind of intelligence. Intelligence itself is created first by the interaction of the soul and the root material. Thus the body or brain cannot have any freewill. We are not our body, we are our souls.
The organs enter into their respective modifications being incited by mutual impulse. The purpose of the Spirit is the sole motive (for the activity of the organs). By none whatsoever is an organ made to act.
Organs work only when the soul tells them to work. This shows that our physical body cannot tell the organs to work; that is, we do not have any freewill. Thus the body works only when soul intends it to the work. Thus only soul can have freewill. But we know, due to the global plan, which is based on the plan of all souls, the individual soul acts. Thus even individual soul cannot also have freewill.
5. Three Gunas
We know that the computer screen or TV screen colors are created by three basic colors called RGB which means Red, Green and Blue. By combination of various percentages of these three basic colors all the different colors in the screen are produced.
In the same way Samkhya has found out that humans have three types of feelings pleasure, pain, and delusion. The causes of these feelings are created by the three properties or gunas of the root material. These properties are Sattava, Rajas, and Tamas respectively. Note that these are not properties of soul; they are the properties of the root material. Since all objects are created from the root material, all objects also have these three characteristics in different proportions.
Sattava and Tamas are of opposite characteristics. They are also inert properties. They cannot do anything on their own. It is the Rajas that make them work, energizes them to act. How much Sattava and how